I was really pleased to present the findings from the project for teachers at Ark Victoria Academy in Small Heath last month as well as talking about the power of community-engaged outreach at St George’s Church Edgbaston. In both places, I spoke about the power of personal narrative in talking about one’s faith both to majority Christian and majority Muslim audiences. I’m always struck at these events by how similar we all are, regardless of our faith, in the goals that we share for ourselves and those around us.
Narrative Inquiry Article
I am very pleased to say that the first article from the project has now been published in Narrative Inquiry. This is an academic journal, so the article is written in very academic language, but if you’re interested in seeing what it’s about, please look here: https://benjamins.com/catalog/ni.22045.pih I’m very happy to pass on a copy of the article to anyone who might be interested.
I’m also working on several other pieces for two more academic journals, but also on a blog post for a teaching association and perhaps some work with charities as well. I’m very interested and happy to run CPD sessions for anyone interested in talking about religious identity in superdiverse places, in education and other community settings, so please be in contact!
Super-diversity and the future
Wednesday marked the final day of my current funding for the Superdivercity Project, as a Leadership Fellowship with the AHRC. I’m incredibly thankful for the time I’ve had to work on the project over the last year and half. I’ve gathered some great insights about the language and religion in this city and how people understand themselves and others, and how language and discourse is important to making those identities meaningful in the world. This is particularly important as the census data released this week confirmed that Birmingham is one of the first super-diverse cities in the country. So much good work is going on in this beautiful city, bringing people together of different faiths and backgrounds.
If you’re interested in the academic outputs, they are currently four that I’m working on:
Pihlaja, Stephen. (forthcoming) Abstraction in Storytelling. Narrative Inquiry.
Pihlaja, Stephen. (under review) Using Positioning Analysis to Trace Religious Identity in Discourse. Discourse Studies.
Pihlaja, Stephen, Richardson, Peter, and Charles Mueller (in preparation) Cognitive Blending and Positioning in Talk about Religious Diversity. Cognitive Linguistics.
Pihlaja, Stephen. (under contract) Language and Religion in the Superdiverse City. CUP Elements.
Each one of these will highlight a different element of the project analysis that I’ve done and the final one, which will be a short monograph on the project, will talk about all the work that I’ve done in a more complete way. I’m very much looking forward to seeing these come out over the next two years. I’ll also be applying for some follow-on funding to help me better promote the infographic I developed and find new ways to share it with others, ideally through professional development training for teachers, parents, and school governors, for presentations in schools, and for religious organisations. I’ll be working on those ideas in the coming months.
Please do continue to the follow the project at it goes forward and I will do my best to keep it updated and everyone informed ab
Talking about beliefs
A key part of this project has been finding a way to communicate the findings in a simple and clear way. I’m really happy to everyone who gave feedback about the findings that led to this infographic. I’m really excited to finally be able to share this and would like to make it available to anyone who would like.
I have ordered 30 posters and 1400 postcards to be distributed in places where people might benefit from this message. If you would like to receive a poster to display, or any postcards, please use this form.
Presenting the project
I will be speaking to the Aston Stylistics Research Group at the beginning of next month (1 Dec, Thursday, at 16:00 UCT), as the project comes to a close. The talk will be online, so all are welcome! The talk is called ‘In a bit of a muddle’: Positioning and storylines in talk about religious identity and here is the abstract:
This talk focuses on religious identity in talk about community life in Birmingham, particularly in contexts where people of different religious beliefs are regularly in contact with one another. Drawing on interviews and fieldwork undertaken during an 18-month, AHRC leadership fellowship entitled ‘Language and Religion in the Superdiverse city’, I will discuss how self and other positioning emerges in talk about religious identity and how these positionings draw on storylines about different religions and ways of being religious in the contemporary world. Analysis will show religious identity is constructed using categories, particularly in contrast and comparison to other categories, and how the use and understanding of those categories can shift depending on contextual factors. I will argue that a more dynamic understanding of religious identity has consequences for how religious belief is understood in society and how people of different religious faiths and backgrounds come to understand one another and people of no faith in diverse settings.
The project has begun to move on to its next phase, where I need to start to write up my findings in several different outputs. The plan for is to write several articles based on the project one focused on some theory about narrative I’ve been developing from my data, an article about the construction of identity in the discourse about religious belief, and an additional article that’s still not determined. I’m also thinking about working on a (short) book that’s limited to the project and the findings, and a longer, more extensive book called Religious Belief and Discourse pulling together some of my larger thoughts about faith as it relates to Discourse. Finally, I’m going to be working on an infographic based on the findings for sharing with the institutions and people that have been involved in the project so far.
There is a challenge, of course, in doing this sort of writing as you try to present your work to both academic and general audiences. There’s no point in just producing a bunch of writing to be stuck in a library and read by a few dozen academics. A key part of the project has included working with community organisations and talking to leaders about what they do in their communities, but as I have been working at boiling this down to some key findings, it’s not clear to me yet, how best to communicate these findings and, indeed, if I have anything worthwhile to say at all. What seems most clear to me is that deciding what is useful to share requires more conversations with people who don’t share the same language as me about data and analysis and impact, but people who work in the real world of community engagement and know how best to speak to the audiences I want to reach.
Reflections on interviews
As I sat in a conference a couple of weeks ago, reflecting on the time I’ve spent over the last year gathering data, I was suddenly filled with a strange panicked thought: why did I interview my participants? The initial answer is obvious: because that’s what you do when you’re trying to find things out about people and what they think — how else are you supposed to know if you don’t ask them? The data I’ve gathered has been more or less what I needed. People have told me about their experiences and as I’ve analysed the data, patterns are starting to emerge in how people talk about their experiences and there have been commonalities that are worth noting.
At the same time, the panic I felt, was the result of wondering, but what if people just told me things that were limited to what I asked about. What if there was something else that I needed to investigate, something beyond the limited questions that I asked and much more important than whatever it was I asked about.
This panic passed relatively quickly as I thought about it more: I had spent a lot of time with people just chatting, visiting them in their organisations and places of worship, having cups of coffee and tea with them, reading the literature, reflecting on my own experiences living in the city for eight and half years. Of course, there would always be limits to the data I collected, but the questions I asked were oriented toward the things I was investigating and the answers have revealed important and noteworthy findings.
But I do still wonder if I’ve put too much focus on the interviews as ‘data’ because they are something concrete. Unlike my notes, I treat them as more objective in some way, like they have a kind of truth that’s more tangible. I wonder what other data I could have collected, and what other things I might collect when I expand this project in the future: the recordings of worship services or websites or communications between people in a community. The interview transcripts are certainly not bad and any kind of data that is collected is oriented towards the collector in some way. There’s no magic reality where the researcher can be a kind of Emersonian transparent eyeball perceiving the world. That said, I think it’s important to treat these transcripts as only one part of the project and go back to those original notes I made when I met with people informally and give them another look in light of what I know now at the end of the project.
Applied Stylistics Symposium
Looking forward to presenting the project in-person at the Applied Stylistics Symposium in Aston this Friday! The slides for the presentation are here:
Are you welcome?
The Mormon church in Harborne, which opened up as a vaccination centre last year, has a sign on the front that says ‘Vistors Welcome’. I have never been to a Mormon church before and have been thinking about attending a service there if I have a free Sunday morning one day. I’ve wondered though if I actually am welcome, if I can just rock up in my normal street clothes and take part — that’s the funny thing about language, sometimes when you say something, people might think the exact opposite thing. If you’re saying everyone’s welcome, it suggests that some people must think that they’re not welcome, and they probably have a reason for thinking that.
It’s a difficult issue when it comes to religious faith: on whose terms are you welcome and how can you change perceptions when people don’t feel welcome. I first understood the power of welcome in Islam when I went to Istanbul with my family in 2011. Everyone in Istanbul was kind to us and I initially was incredibly uncomfortable: strangers picking up my children, the street sweeper telling me and my wife what a great mix our kids were. But after the initial shock, we were overwhelmed with how much genuine love was shown by everyone. I remember saying at the time that if only you could get the most hardcore anti-Muslim racist in the States and take them to Istanbul, if they could have some ice cream and Turkish Delight and wander in the markets, there would be no way they could stay racist. How could you hate Muslims when you felt that sort of love from everyone around you.
Last Friday, I attended the University of Birmingham’s community Iftar, one of the things I have most been looking forward to since Covid shut it down for two years. I didn’t go with anyone, and after the speeches in the Great Hall were done, I wandered outside to the tarps put out on the Chancellor’s Court, under the lights strung up and Old Joe, and sat by myself. In a couple of minutes, two other men, who didn’t know each other or me, and who had both come alone, sat with me, and we broke the fast together, and they invited me to come pray with them. After the prayers, we ate and talked about our lives and the challenges of living a meaningful life. It was completely serendipitous and true display of Islam as I understand it, where people of all different walks of life sit and share food together.
I left to walk home and wondered again about welcome, thinking these days not about American racists, but other people I would have loved to have seen at the Iftar. I had felt an overwhelming feeling of welcome, of course, but then again I’m a cis-gender, straight, white man: would I have felt the same way if I was gay and with my partner? I could ask the same question about St Peters, the local Anglican church that I attend as a hopeful atheist: the doors are open, and anyone is welcome, but not everyone feels welcome. Welcome is, of course, something that must be both offered and felt. I love the language of inter-religious dialogue, the focus on building bridges and finding common ground, but I wonder if it simplifies the more difficult things that we need to talk about. We say all are welcome, but does everyone feel welcome. Welcome is something you need to pursue, not just offer, and it’s probably going to require everyone being a little bit (or a lot) uncomfortable.
The power to compel change
This last week, I was away at Citizens UK‘s six-day residential leadership course, hosted this year by The Queen’s Foundation in Birmingham. The course is accredited by my very own Newman University with an award of a Certificate in Community Leadership. I did Citizens’ three-day training online last year and was really eager to spend more time learning about how community organising works. It was an intense time of personal and professional growth and vulnerability with some 50 other people, almost all of whom I had meaningful conversations with over the course of the week. There was so much that happened that it’s impossible to sum it up in a succinct way — suffice to say if you want to learn about community and relational leadership, this course is definitely worth your time. For me, though, there were three main takeaways:
- You only get as much justice as you have the power to compel. This quote from the ancient Greek historian Thucydides was a key part of the learning from the very beginning, as we looked at how power works in society. An important part of community organising is power analysis: looking at where power sits in different organisations and how changes can be made by compelling people with power to act. This is a messy, pragmatic process that doesn’t suit idealogues well: you almost always have to compromise to win change. Justice is possible, but you can’t get justice by simply having the best, rightest beliefs. You have to be willing to work in increments towards your goals.
- People act in their own self-interest, and if you want to make change, you have to understand the self-interest of the people you want to organise. Community organising is built on conversations we call one-to-ones, where people talk about who they are and what they want. By understanding what people in a community want and how they see themselves, organisers and leaders can act in the interest of the community and also have the broad support of that community, because they are asking people to act in the direction of the change the community wants.
- Broad changes require broad support, and broad support requires broad-based organising. On Wednesday, we took a coach to London to support an action on Parliament Square where community organisers, activists, and workers met together to call for the government to pay social care workers the real living wage in England. MPs came out to meet us and we had an assembly in Methodist Central Hall in Westminster with nearly 400 people. Looking around the assembly, you could get a sense of how diverse civil society is in the UK. Seeing broad-based community organising in action, and people come together in an organised way and demand change was incredibly inspiring. While we haven’t one this campaign yet, you can see how we get there, by growing the base of the movement through specific, targeted actions on the people whose minds we need to change. The more people we have standing with us, the easier it is to speak loudly enough to be heard.